nexium patient assistant programs available

Singapore's high-income urban population faces increasing risk factors for preventable non-communicable diseases, including insufficient exercise, obesity, and poor diets.

Work hours, cvs pharmacy store location which average 44 hours per week, negatively impact health and mental well-being, thus contributing to obesity and chronic health conditions. Stress from personal and work lives can also affect dietary practices and ultimately compromise overall health.

Study: Hard work, long hours, and Singaporean young adults' health—A qualitative study. Image Credit: PanuShot /

About the study

In the present qualitative mixed-method study published in Frontiers in Public Health, researchers explore young adults' work hours regarding work culture, encompassing shared beliefs, values, behaviors, attitudes, and customs toward work in Singapore.

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 female and 15 male Singaporean individuals between 23 and 36 years of age who had resided in the country for one year or more and had full-time employment. Between June 2016 and October 2016, individuals were recruited through purposive snowball sampling from a database of individuals who formerly participated in the National University of Singapore (NUS) research or convenience sampling.

Work contentment, deadlines, perceived health, and self-documented anthropometric data were collected using brief questionnaires. The global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to assess physical activity levels and calculate body mass index (BMI). 

A three-day time-use diary derived from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Time Use Survey was used to track the number of hours devoted to routine tasks such as working, sleeping, and commuting.

An inductive and deductive thematic analysis was used to investigate participants' perceptions and beliefs about health, food and dietary practices, work and time use, physical activity, and broader sociocultural influences.

All study participants were interviewed in English. All interviews were recorded and transcribed to provide insights into the social determinants of health and the relationship between health and working life in Singapore.

Poor work/life balance

Among the study participants, 74%, 13%, 9%, and 3% belonged to Chinese, Malay, Indian, and other ethnic backgrounds, respectively. Most participants worked 47 hours weekly, which is higher than the Employment Act 1968 of Singapore recommendation, with those in the accounting and finance industries working the longest.

Young adults' commitment to work was driven by remuneration, a hard-working culture, financial security, work deadlines, and the desire to attain better jobs, meet their personal and cultural aspirations, support their families, save for housing, and sustain rising living costs.

The Employment Act mandates paying low-paid work employees and manual laborers for working overtime, excluding managers and those with white-collar jobs. Thus, the majority of young adults in this study were not compensated for their overtime work.

In addition to working overtime, the adults reverted to work-associated messages beyond work hours. Most of the wake hours of the participants on weekdays were spent working, whereas the remaining hours were spent traveling and eating.

Despite sleeping seven hours daily, the working adult population felt exhausted prior to, during, and after work. Moreover, these individuals devoted their non-work times, which typically ranged between two to four hours daily, to commuting, sedentary-type entertainment activities, and meeting friends and family during meals. The majority of participants restrained from completing paid tasks on weekends and relaxed at their homes or socialized with friends instead.

Women did more household chores and cared for their children more frequently than men. Poor work-life balance primarily affected dietary practices, which left limited energy and time to consume healthy foods. Most participants consumed commercially prepared meals high in added sugars and fat.

The study participants spent an average of 10 hours each day seated at their desks, taking public transportation, or relaxing after work. However, 67% exercised at least once weekly, with only 39% meeting the recommended 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic workouts or 75 minutes or more of high-intensity aerobic workouts weekly.

An average of 28 minutes every weekday were devoted to physical fitness, mostly walking to public transportation and eating out. Insufficient time and fatigue were the most significant impediments to exercising, particularly following an exhausting workday.


Long working hours are a normal part of the young working Singaporean lifestyle, despite limiting time for physical activity and adversely impacting their health. Singapore's institutional standards and societal expectations foster an environment that emphasizes job commitment and drives young individuals to work for extended periods to attain financial security, support their parents financially, afford rising living costs, and achieve personal goals.

These observations can guide health awareness programs aimed at young working professionals. While the non-negotiable work culture supports Singapore's growing economy, it may adversely impact the physical and mental health of the youth through weight gain from increased sedentary activities and stress due to tight deadlines, increased responsibilities, and the desire to work to their fullest to maximize finances.

Journal reference:
  • Leu, J., Rebello, S. A., Sargent. G. M., et al. (2023) Hard work, long hours, and Singaporean young adults’ health—A qualitative study. Frontiers in Public Health. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2023.1082581

Posted in: Medical Research News | Medical Condition News | Women's Health News

Tags: Body Mass Index, Children, Chronic, Exercise, Fatigue, Food, Mental Health, Obesity, Physical Activity, Public Health, Research, Stress, Walking

Comments (0)

Written by

Pooja Toshniwal Paharia

Dr. based clinical-radiological diagnosis and management of oral lesions and conditions and associated maxillofacial disorders.

Source: Read Full Article